There is a crucial need to quantify the percentage of damage and losses that can be reduced by implementing a particular disaster risk reduction practice. Cost-benefits analyses are used to assess the net benefits of a given intervention. For disaster risk reduction initiatives, they take into account their agro-ecological suitability, socio-economic feasibility, the potential to increase resilience of livelihoods to disasters, and their environmental impacts. The net benefits of the new practice are compared with baseline data on the historic performance of the current practice and with the investments that were made to implement the new practice.
Results obtained during the observed time are then extrapolated over a longer time period.
Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change
The cost-benefits analysis is used to calculate the Benefit Cost Ratio, which indicates the dividend measured in monetary terms that is returned on the financial investment. FAO supports countries in identifying, testing, and scaling up good practices and technologies in disaster risk reduction, and promotes a consistent approach for monitoring and evaluating these technologies at the local level.
The cost-benefits analysis process is intended to help identify, under normal conditions and hazardous conditions, the most cost-effective disaster risk reduction practices and provide guidance on the socio-economic potential for scaling them up, Figure C5. The calculation is based on primary farm level data collected on agricultural seasonal basis.
For the cost-benefits analysis, the data collected on farms includes the costs of inputs, labour, maintenance and capital, and the benefits in terms of the gross value of production. Preliminary results from studies conducted in Bolivia, Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the Philippines and Uganda indicate that, when hazards strike, the net economic benefits at the farm level that are gained from implementing good disaster risk reduction practices are 2.
Box C5. As part of the Global Climate Change Alliance GCCA project on Agriculture Adaptation to Climate Change farmers in Uganda were introduced to improved maize varieties that were more tolerant to drought and diseases and were trained on a set of good practices to enhance the resilience of maize production to increasing dry spells in the central cattle corridor of Uganda.
During the dry season June to August , the performance of the improved maize varieties was monitored in 19 farms in the Kiboga, Mubende and Nakasongola districts. All the farms were affected by dry spells during the monitoring period. Figure C5. Local maize varieties had higher labour costs than improved varieties, probably due to the higher resistance of improved varieties to weeds, pests and diseases. The higher seed and fertilizer costs associated with the cultivation of improved maize were more than compensated by the increase in yields.
The benefit-cost ratio of improved varieties is 2.
Scaling up climate compatible development
Added benefits under non-hazard conditions could not be analyzed since all farms were affected by dry spell. In farms affected by dry spells, the average net benefit of the good practice is more than two times higher than the local practice. This is largely due to enhanced drought resilience of the improved maize varieties.
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The improved maize varieties mature faster than the local variety. Therefore, water use is lower under the good practice. Given the long history and wide range of potential disaster risk reduction practices, a cost-benefit validation that is based on sound evidence from the field can help select practices that have potential for scaling up.
This involves validating practices that have been effective in a variety of landscapes and against different types of hazards. Once the evidence has been gathered and the practices validated, government investments for disaster risk reduction are essential for promoting the uptake of these practices on a larger scale. Where disaster risk reduction technologies have been proven to be effective locally, they can be taken up and promoted through both disaster risk reduction and climate-smart agriculture initiatives.
A main obstacle to the widespread adoption of climate-smart that also reduce the risk of disasters is the fact that the most vulnerable and poor agricultural producers have very limited access to the required technologies and resources. Effective disaster risk reduction depends in large part on sound environmental stewardship and natural resource management practices that can ensure the sustainable use of ecosystems.
Deforestation, desertification the degradation of land, water and other natural resources, and marine and coastal environments reduce the capacity of vulnerable communities to defend themselves against climate-related hazards and aggravate the impact of disasters FAO, b.
In turn, disasters can accelerate environmental degradation. On the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, the Asian Tsunami damaged approximately 20 percent of sea grass beds, 25 to 35 percent of wetlands, about 60 hectares of agricultural land, nearly 49 hectares of coastal forests, and 32 hectares of mangroves UNEP, ; UNEP, Environmental degradation reduces the goods and services available to local communities, shrinks economic opportunities and livelihood options, and ultimately contributes to greater food insecurity and hunger FAO, b.
Scaling up the use of tools for community-based adaptation: issues and challenges
Conversely, healthy and diverse ecosystems are more resilient to natural hazards. Forests and trees provide windbreaks, and play an important role in stabilizing riverbanks and reducing soil erosion, which help protect communities against landslides, avalanches and floods. Wetlands store water and provide a buffer against storms, mitigate flooding, protect shorelines and control erosion FAO, b. When strengthening resilience of vulnerable agricultural communities, interventions must necessarily take into account how natural resources are managed within the entire agriculture landscape or broader ecosystem see also module A3 on integrated landscape management.
A landscape or ecosystem approach is of critical importance for disaster risk reduction and climate-smart agriculture. Sustainable ecosystem management provides the unifying base for successful disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.
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It also maximizes opportunities for safeguarding or diversifying rural livelihoods and improving food and nutrition security PEDRR and The Council of Europe, Uganda is prone to droughts, floods, windstorms and hailstorms, landslides and crop and livestock diseases. Water-related hazards account for over 90 percent of the natural disasters, destroying an average of hectares of crops annually UNDP et al.
The impacts of these natural hazards are made worse by increasing environmental degradation. The most disaster-prone communities are located along the dry arid and semi-arid areas of the 'cattle corridor' that stretches across the country. It places communities at the centre of the process and empowers them to make qualified decisions. Building and strengthening watershed organizations and linking them with District Disaster Management Committee and Village Disaster Management Committees is crucial. Farmer field schools are used to increase the knowledge and skills of farmers and pastoralists.
Scaling up Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) in Niger | UNDP Climate Change Adaptation
Farmers can then solve problems for themselves and undertake their own initiatives in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Each district that participated prepared draft action plans on how to apply and replicate the approach in their local environment. As a result of the training, the local government of Moroto District has initiated an improved community-based watershed management programme in the Musopo watershed. The conceptual and operational framework of community-based integrated watershed management for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation is presented in Figure C5.
As climate change affects rainfall patterns and increases surface temperatures, ecosystem services will become more vulnerable and fragile. The Paris Agreement and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction have both recognized the importance of ecosystem-based approaches as critical elements for building resilience to change see Chapter C5. Ecosystem-based approaches are also a fundamental pillar of climate-smart agriculture.
Existing ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction measures can strengthen adaptation and mitigation efforts in the agriculture sectors and play a large role in making the transition to climate-smart agriculture.
Initiatives that combine disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation objectives are beginning to emerge. For instance, agronomic practices with multiple benefits such as conservation agriculture and the System of Rice Intensification have been promoted to support disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and resilience.
These crop production practices are describe in module B1. Risk Insurance schemes can buffer the costs of the impacts of disasters and climate change, including losses of agricultural assets. Insurance provides a risk transfer mechanism in which users pre-invest in risk reduction by ensuring repayment and timely recapitalization when affected by disasters. In order to enhance the resilience capacity of rural poor communities, it was agreed that vulnerable groups and communities must be allowed to decide the best way for them to cope with the impact of climate change.
The importance of incorporating local knowledge into CSA was further elaborated by John Mbaria from the Nation Media Group in Kenya who recommended the documentation and sharing of such knowledge and the integration of appropriate long-held community resource-use norms and practices into local government and national policy processes. With most food producers located in poorly developed rural areas, John noted that targeting local food production systems represented the biggest opportunity to increase food production, reduce vulnerabilities and improve livelihoods.
Farmers are organized in cooperatives and this facilitates monitoring and also sharing of information. In order to address climate change effects, these farmers now have timely access to climate information such as seasonal and weekly forecasts to aid their decision making. The PASP project will provide incremental support for climate resilient post-harvest infrastructures and related investments that will focus on facilitating introduction of climate-smart post-harvest technologies and infrastructures.
Notably, Rwanda is engaged in adopting and encouraging the CBA approach within existing national policies and sectorial strategies tackling climate change and promoting green growth economy. Panelists during the session on monitoring and scaling up csa during cba9. Photo: V. It should be about measuring the capacity of farmers and communities, especially marginalised and smallholder farmers, to identify, develop and use different agricultural practices.
It is their capacity that will enable them to respond to unpredictable climate-related changes and make better farming and livelihood decisions in the long-term. Vijayasankaran from Samaj Pragati Sahayog in India pointed out that CSA is a holistic approach that requires multi-pronged investment and a multi-disciplinary approach towards participatory research.
While the role of private sector investments need to be emphasised, scaling up of small, scattered initiatives on CSA is not possible without incorporating these into national government programmes with substantial investments sustained over a period of time. These processes must be stakeholder-driven and facilitate the linkage of national decision-makers with local realities and community priorities, running parallel prioritization processes across levels.