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This is unacceptable, and we need to take steps to address inadequate healthcare infrastructure now. We need to focus on three areas: leveraging digital technologies, improving knowledge, skills and resources, and creating collaboration and consensus among key stakeholders. As mobile devices become increasingly common, they become an unexpected force in delivering better healthcare. For example, previously, patients would travel to far-off health clinics only to find that the medicines they needed were no longer in stock. Today, around 27, government health workers in Uganda use a mobile health system called mTRAC to report on medicine stocks across the country.

Novartis is also working on an mHealth pilot in Nairobi and Mombasa to better understand the supply chain cycle and build capabilities to ensure our medicines reach those patients in need. Through this initiative, pharmacists register their patients for surveys via SMS. The survey results then help us map out where patients are located in order to redistribute medicines to areas where they are most needed.

Secondly, we must focus on making sure all those who need them have the right knowledge, skills and resources, for example by training the next generation of scientific leaders.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) -

This initiative funds African scientists and local institutions to conduct basic research on the genomic and environmental bases of health issues prevalent on the continent. Additionally, Novartis is supporting scientific exchange through a partnership with H3-D, the first drug discovery and development centre in Africa. The goal of H3-D is to train local scientists from Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Sudan and Zimbabwe to develop treatments that address widespread conditions in Africa, such as tuberculosis, malaria and cardiovascular disease. Public-private partnerships can really make a difference.

For example, USAID and Orange, the global telecommunications operator, just announced a new collaboration to find innovative ways to use mobile phones to accelerate access to health information and services in Africa.

Preventing the Spread of HIV

This grass-roots approach can make a big difference, as the cost of a patient spending one day in a hospital could fund two health workers for a month. I met a one-year-old boy suffering from malaria at the Ahero Sub-District Hospital in Kenya, and though he was extremely ill, his condition was improving thanks to his being able to gain access to a life-saving treatment. We need to commit ourselves to working together with all other healthcare players to move away from simply donating aid, to building sustainable infrastructure that can ensure needed therapies are available in even the most remote areas.

Everyone should have access to good health, no matter where they live. The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum. I accept.

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This situation led to difficulties in negotiating safe sex with partners. The usefulness of the community mobilization model in Cambodia, which engaged residents in community to participate in the workshop promoting female condom use in Vietnamese migrants, was highlighted. A joint collaboration between domestic partners: the Mexican Ministry of Health and the National Institute on Geography and Statistics, was established. Poudel et al 60 In India, a large proportion of Nepali migrants sought frequent sex with multiple partners, and some continued extramarital sex after their return to Nepal.

Disparities in HIV Healthcare: An Expert Perspective

This behavior was influenced by alcohol, being single, and low perception of HIV. Holt et al 38 The level of knowledge on condom use was low in Sudanese refugees. Limitations of the study This study contains certain limitations. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Dr Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Dr Phusit Prakongsai, and Dr Suwit Wibulpolprasert, who continuously supported everyone involved in this study.

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. References 1. Putting it together: AIDS and the millennium development goals.

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